Dynamic spillovers and linkages between gold, crude oil, S&P 500, and other economic and financial variables. Evidence from the USA

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Petros Golitsis
Pavlos Gkasis
Sotirios K. Bellos
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This paper focuses on the price determinants of gold, and on the challenges associated with gold’s safe haven property. Specifically, it analyses the interlinkages and the return spillover effect among gold, crude oil, S&P 500, dollar exchange rate, Consumer Price Index (CPI), economic policy uncertainty and Treasury bills, by employing a Vector Autoregression (VAR) and the spillover index of Diebold and Yilmaz (2012), Diebold and Yılmaz (2014). Monthly realized return series, covering the period from 2nd of January 1986 to 31st of December 2019 are used to examine the short-run linkages, and the return spillovers rolling-window estimates in analyzing the transmission mechanism in a time-varying fashion, respectively. Our findings identify gold as a strong dollar hedge, while crude oil and Treasury bills appear to drive inflation; they also indicate strong spillover effects between exchange rate and gold returns. In general, co-movement dynamics display state-dependent characteristics. Both total and directional spillovers increase significantly during market turbulence caused by severe financial crises such as the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2007–2009 and the European Sovereign Debt Crisis of 2010–2012. Net spillovers switch between positive and negative values for all these markets, implying that the recipient/transmitter position changes drastically with market events. Economic policy uncertainty, stock market returns, and crude oil price returns are the main transmitters, while Treasury bills and CPI are the main return shock recipients. Gold and exchange rate act both as receivers and transmitters over the sample period.