Consensus on the reporting and experimental design of clinical and cognitive-behavioural neurofeedback studies (CRED-nf checklist)

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Ros, T.
Klados, M.A
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Neurofeedback has begun to attract the attention and scrutiny of the scientific and medical mainstream. Here, neurofeedback researchers present a consensus-derived checklist that aims to improve the reporting and experimental design standards in the field.
U.S. has been paid for public speaking by Novartis, Medice, NeuroCare, the German Society for Biofeedback, the German Society for Psychotherapy and Psychiatry and the Akademie König und Müller. K.R. has received a grant from Takeda for another project. M.H. has a patent application for fNIRS neurofeedback, titled ‘Methods and systems for treating a subject using NIRS neurofeedback’ (PCT/US2017/036532, filed June 8, 2017) as well as a contract with Elsevier to edit a book titled ‘FMRI Neurofeedback’. D.B. serves as an unpaid scientific advisor for an EU-funded neurofeedback trial unrelated to the present work. B.B. was paid for public speaking by the neuroCare Group (München, Germany). M.A. is unpaid chairman of the Brainclinics Foundation, a minority shareholder in neuroCare Group (Munich, Germany), and a co-inventor on four patent applications related to EEG, neuromodulation and psychophysiology, but receives no royalties related to these patents; Research Institute Brainclinics received research funding from Brain Resource (Sydney, Australia), Urgotech (France) and neuroCare Group (München, Germany), and equipment support from Deymed, neuroConn, Brainsway and Magventure. R.T.T. has received payments to consult with neurofeedback start-up companies. R.C.D. holds patents related to rtfMRI and rtfMRI-based feedback, and is CEO and a shareholder in Omneuron, a company that has developed technology related rtfMRI-based feedback. All other authors report no competing interests.
Ros T, Enriquez-Geppert S, Zotev V, Young KD, Wood G, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Wan F, Vuilleumier P, Vialatte F, Van De Ville D, Todder D, Surmeli T, Sulzer JS, Strehl U, Sterman MB, Steiner NJ, Sorger B, Soekadar SR, Sitaram R, Sherlin LH, Schönenberg M, Scharnowski F, Schabus M, Rubia K, Rosa A, Reiner M, Pineda JA, Paret C, Ossadtchi A, Nicholson AA, Nan W, Minguez J, Micoulaud-Franchi JA, Mehler DMA, Lührs M, Lubar J, Lotte F, Linden DEJ, Lewis-Peacock JA, Lebedev MA, Lanius RA, Kübler A, Kranczioch C, Koush Y, Konicar L, Kohl SH, Kober SE, Klados MA, Jeunet C, Janssen TWP, Huster RJ, Hoedlmoser K, Hirshberg LM, Heunis S, Hendler T, Hampson M, Guggisberg AG, Guggenberger R, Gruzelier JH, Göbel RW, Gninenko N, Gharabaghi A, Frewen P, Fovet T, Fernández T, Escolano C, Ehlis AC, Drechsler R, Christopher deCharms R, Debener S, De Ridder D, Davelaar EJ, Congedo M, Cavazza M, Breteler MHM, Brandeis D, Bodurka J, Birbaumer N, Bazanova OM, Barth B, Bamidis PD, Auer T, Arns M, Thibault RT. Consensus on the reporting and experimental design of clinical and cognitive-behavioural neurofeedback studies (CRED-nf checklist). Brain. 2020 Jun 1;143(6):1674-1685. doi: 10.1093/brain/awaa009. PMID: 32176800; PMCID: PMC7296848.